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Orangutans are the only great apes native to Asia. The three other types (gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo) are found in Africa. Less than 20,000 years ago the orangutan could still be found all over Southeast Asia, from Java in the south to the Himalayas and southern China in the north. Today this great ape can only be found in Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan), 90% of it is located within Indonesia (Figure 1). This substantial habitat loss is primarily caused by competition with humans, especially since both orangutan and human share a land preference for alluvial plains along major rivers and peat swamps. Human invasion into these area for social, economic, and cultural development frequently has fatal consequences to the orangutan.

Citation: Adi Susmianto (Secretary to the Directorate General Forest Protection and Nature Conservation Ministry of Forestry) Aldrianto Priadjati (BOSF); Darmawan Liswanto (Titian Foundation/Flora Fauna International - Indonesia Program); Darrell Kitchener (Orangutan Conservation Services Program); Erik Meijaard (Orangutan Conservation Services Program); Ian Singleton (SOCP/ Pan-Eco); Jatna Supriatna (Conservation International); Jito Sugarjito (Flora Fauna International - Indonesia Program) Joko Pamungkas (PSSP-IPB); Peter Pratje (FZS/SOCP); Serge Wich (Great Ape Trust of Iowa) Sofi an Iskandar (Forest Research and Development Ministry of Forestry); Togu Simorangkir (Yayorin)

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