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Serious downward trends in the integrity of Indonesiaís forest estate occurred throughout the 1990s due to widespread logging and conversion for plantation agriculture. Some protected areas were, in retrospect, left relatively unscathed, while others suffered from devastating fires that resulted from unwise land-use practices. Since the change in government in 1998, however, conservation in Indonesia has seen a virtual collapse, and deforestation has been enormous regardless of the legal status of the land (Holmes 2000; Jepson et al. 2001; Robertson and van Schaik 2001). As a result, wild orangutans are in steady decline due to logging, habitat conversion, fires and poaching.

Citation: Singleton, I., S. Wich, S. Husson, S. Stephens, S. Utami Atmoko, M. Leighton, N. Rosen, K. Traylor-Holzer, R. Lacy and O. Byers (eds.). 2004. Orangutan Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.